Knowledge is perceiving something with its reality, and science is a series of concepts and laws that are series and interrelated with each other, and these concepts arise from experiences or observations, and science can be defined as an organized knowledge that comes from research and thinking It is an activity by which man seeks to develop his abilities to control nature, and the goals of science are to describe different phenomena through observation and use the tools of science, to explain phenomena, to know their causes, to study the changes that lead to the occurrence of the phenomenon that has been studied and to describe it, and to predict the occurrence of phenomena in the future with the help of With previous results, and controlling the factors that lead to their occurrence in the interest of humans.
Science has many characteristics, including:
- Science is constantly evolving: science develops and renews itself constantly through the changes that occur to the scientific explanations of various matters, in addition to the modifications and changes associated with the evidence for that, and attention must be paid to the changes that occur and follow them continuously; Through constant knowledge of the various aspects of science and its trends, and correct information and scientific facts mentioned in books, whether the school or other, according to the developments taking place.
- Science has tools of its own: obtaining information and accessing scientific facts require specific tools, for example, to obtain an accurate water temperature, an accurate thermometer must be available, so the individual cannot rely on measuring the water temperature by feeling his hand, this is a preliminary indicator of the degree of Temperature, however, is not scientifically reliable, and therefore the researcher must be able to use scientific tools and devices, and the units used must be focused on whether the scientific information is based on measurements.
- Science is cumulative and subject to modification: one of the characteristics of science is that it is cumulative, so when a researcher studies a particular topic, he does not start from scratch, but benefits from the experiences and studies of those who preceded him, and the conclusions and results of recent studies are based on the old, and if a study results in new evidence, it is more correct than the old. , It replaces it and that it becomes dated, and this indicates that science is subject to modification and development.
- Science is influenced by society as it affects society: Science is strongly linked to society; This is because science develops society, as it develops and changes according to the surrounding conditions that prevail in society.
Knowledge is the outcome of learning through the ages, and knowledge means knowledge of something, and it is characterized by being more comprehensive than science as it includes various sciences, fields, and information that individuals have reached throughout history, and there is a difference between scientific knowledge and knowledge. Ordinary, so ordinary knowledge is the science itself, and scientific knowledge is that which reaches a higher degree of credibility and is based on evidence and evidence.
Scientific knowledge can also be defined as the outcome of opinions, perceptions, facts, and beliefs that the individual forms from repeating his attempt to understand what is happening around him in terms of phenomena, and it includes everything that surrounds the individual and is related to him, and the importance of knowledge lies in that it helps the individual to understand the matters facing him in his life and become He is able to overcome any problems or obstacles that he may encounter and prevent him from reaching what he aspires to, and it gives him the ability to take appropriate actions and decisions, and through his knowledge, he can realize his mistakes and correct them.
Methods for accessing knowledge
There are three ways to access knowledge, and they are:
- Benefiting from previous experiences and experiences: A person can return to the previous knowledge and experiences of previous generations and benefit from them, as well as benefit from his previous experiences in similar situations in different fields.
- Experimentation: Experimentation aims to reach general provisions and laws by tracing the particles related to a subject, and in this way, the individual can control and control the phenomena surrounding him.
- Inference and measurement: This method starts from general matters and moves gradually to private matters, and through syllogism, the individual can judge the various events around him, and he can know the laws that control the occurrence of phenomena around him.
Knowledge is classified into three types:
- Contemplative knowledge: the individual must be sufficiently intellectually mature to be able to deeply study the phenomena occurring around him. This is so that he can become familiar with his study of most of the facts and evidence he needs, and this knowledge depends heavily on philosophy.
- Sensory knowledge: It is the knowledge that the individual acquires through the senses, such as listening, touching, or seeing.
- Scientific knowledge: It depends on experimentation, and it is based on the observation of the occurring phenomena, and it also depends on the scientific hypotheses developed in an appropriate manner for the phenomena, and these hypotheses are confirmed by experimentation, then the data that is obtained is collected and analyzed.