The sciences are varied and differentiated among them, and in order to know the nature of these sciences and the differences between them, it is necessary to control their definitions first, and from this point of view, it can be said that psychology is one of those sciences that have been collected and controlled by rules, theories, and many concepts. Human behavior, and the mental processes accompanying it, which, in their entirety, constitute the person’s personality, the manner of his interaction, and the extent of his integration with those around him; Therefore, psychology studies these factors, and how they affect behavior, noting that it is one of the sciences that is divided into two tracks in its practical aspect. It can be considered a cognitive science in which psychological concepts are merged with practical behaviors in the person’s personality and those around him, and it can also be learned. and practiced as a counseling and therapeutic profession for individuals and families, and this is its wider professional scope, more professional and specialized.
Research in the fields of psychology is renewed, in-depth, and constantly evolving. This is due to the continuous endeavor to know how human thought and behavior are affected by the various variables, factors, and influences that would move these entities in the human psyche; The family, society, surrounding conditions, and the media are all factors that contribute to influencing human thinking and behavior in various ways, and to varying degrees, to reflect on the practical applications that psychology can leave its mark on, such as mental health care programs, rehabilitation, and self-development, Developing individual performance, improving the work environment, and promoting awareness of feelings, ideas, motives, and behaviors. The role of psychology is not limited to the therapeutic aspects, but also to preventive or developmental aspects, such as drafting letters, public announcements, and paying attention to the designs of some designated buildings. To meet the specific needs of its visitors, as well as in military life, and psychological support for soldiers, war victims, and prisoners, as well as support for people with special needs, and patient care with psychological and positive support, as all these renewed applications deny psychology the narrow traditional view of its practitioners; Today it is a science that analyzes and describes human behavior, its motives, and its outcomes, which qualify it. To predict the future of behavioral trends, and the possibilities to influence them.
The evolution of psychology
The first attempts to form the concepts of psychology and its dimensions began since the seventeenth century, and those attempts did not appear in their initial, integrated form until the end of the nineteenth century. As the discovery of the French philosopher René Descartes was one of the first of those attempts, and what he reached can be summarized in the interactive relationship between the body and the mind, which gives rise to the conscious human behavior, which is linked to thought and logic, as scientists in the past relied on observation and logical induction; To receive information and conclude from it, as there were other discoveries that supported psychology; In the middle of the nineteenth century, the German scientist Wilhelm Wundt wrote his book (Principles of Physiological Psychology), in which he pointed out the existence of important links between the functions of the body’s organs and thought To produce human behavior, his achievements culminated in the inauguration of the first laboratory for psychology in the world in 1879 AD, to which thousands flocked, and paved the way for those after him to use the experimental scientific method in deduction, statistics, and comparison.
Psychology became famous in the United States of America in the late nineteenth century, and one of the fruits of this event was that the scientist William James wrote his book (Principles of Psychology), which is considered a standard reference for psychology from the American point of view, and psychology soon began to take practical forms And another process; The Austrian physician Sigmund Freud contributed to changing one aspect of the applied fields of psychology to this day. By affirming and demonstrating the effectiveness of the role of the unconscious mind in shaping human thought and behavior, which led to improving caring methods, deepening their application, and their impact in the fields of mental care. The development of psychology flourished during the twentieth century, with the emergence of a behavioral psychology curriculum that focused on behavior, marginalizing the role of the conscious and unconscious mind in an attempt; To control psychology with scientific sources and tools that can be viewed and documented.
As for the second half of the twentieth century, it witnessed a new development in schools of thought specializing in psychology, with the emergence of what is known as humanistic psychology, which depends in its structure on the will of man and his conscious behavior in determining his present and future, and from the products of this methodology (Maslow’s hierarchy) Which: a hierarchical system developed by the psychologist Abraham Maslow, in which he included the basic needs of the human soul, expressing that man is motivated by his needs towards meeting them, and with the fulfillment of every need and being satisfied with it, the human yearns to meet the next need at its highest level and to consolidate the relationship between Science, and the human soul, emerged what is known as (cognitive psychology), which continues to impose its control with the development of scientific and psychological knowledge tools and methods. Scientists are trying to find out the facts of psychological and intellectual interactions that result in behavior, and researchers are still analyzing the realms of perception, memory, mind, language, intelligence, decision-making mechanism, self-awareness, biological influence, and factors affecting family, society, and culture.
Types of psychology
There are many types of psychology, and its practical and professional applications according to the fields it serves, and which it provides with the necessary support and care, and the most important of these types are the following:
- Clinical Psychology.
- Cognitive Psychology.
- Developmental Psychology.
- Health Psychology.
- Forensic Psychology.
- Professional Psychology.
- Social Psychology.
Future areas of psychology
Technological development has swept the scientific fields of all kinds, allowing those sciences to converge on a common ground in which they are united by technical ties and the latest inventions, such as artificial intelligence, sensor technology, robotics, imaging, and others. For example, the accuracy of its results has improved, bearing in mind that concerted efforts must be made. So that psychology has that twinning between it and the rapidly developing technology, and it is worth noting that among the areas in which psychology can flourish in the future are the following:
- Merging psychology with engineering and technology sciences as a discipline supporting the rational and scientific foundations on which mathematics, physics, and other applied sciences depend.
- Strengthening the link between psychology and health care methods, as the role of psychology does not stop at the therapeutic solution of mental or cognitive illnesses, but may extend to psychological treatment of physical illnesses, and resisting their symptoms mentally and behaviorally after awareness of them, and psychological strengthening. To treat it, and the development of psychological behavior may contribute to improving preventive programs, and the mental health of non-sick individuals. Controlling the behavior of the individual, his emotions, the balance of his lifestyle, the stability of his awareness, and his emotions are all factors that should be taken care of and studied. Let everyone enjoy better physical and mental health.
- Study the relationships between the different health symptoms in their prevalence, strength, and some psychological or biological factors, such as age, ethnic group, minority conditions, social and economic status, as they are all factors that may have an effect on forming some health or psychological symptoms, as it is When compared and analyzed, we have small societies formed with psychological factors and common health symptoms, and studying these cases and looking into their conditions may help to devise more in-depth and longer-term solutions than just treating the symptom that appears medically, without neglecting the psychological aspect of the individual, the family, and society.
These scientific, technical, medical, curative, and preventive fields all require a review of psychology from a different angle that looks to the future and builds on what has been accomplished for this science in the past. Traditional methods are not able to invest the capabilities and opportunities available today, so it is not right for science to develop and its applications while human psychology remains stalled from growth and prosperity, and it is worth noting that with globalization and the tremendous technical acceleration, psychology becomes in front of the test of creating integrated solutions. , Harmonious and supportive of the health, technical, community, military, and relief fields; To meet the needs of society, secure its mental and physical health, and strengthen its social structure.