It is a science-based on polarization and the extraction of data and information from its sources, at very long distances, taking a large image from a distance from above and using the devices used to record the electromagnetic rays that the surface of the earth moving reflects and transmits. The goal of this science is to provide humans with information that allows them to study the surface of the earth and its shapes. It provides the digital aerial photographs captured by satellites that are rich in weather information, data, and notes and works to provide the ground station with what it has gleaned from that information.
Remote sensing is considered to be one of the advanced methods and methods for obtaining and recording information and its creation was based on the naked eye, therefore it developed in its dependence on aerial platforms-forms that extract information from its sources along with emergence. the functionality of the control and processing of optical images, entirely dependent on the presence of chemical compounds sensitive to light.
Remote sensing focuses on knowing the nature of objects and what they are, without exposing them to direct physical or chemical contact with them, and one of the most common types of remote sensing is the use of space images extracted from satellites or aircraft. and the goals of these captured images branched out to me:
- Natural or geological targets: It depends on acquiring satellite images to explore the locations of oil, minerals, and water and aims to reveal the geological distortions that the Earth suffers from.
- Agricultural Targets: Satellite and aerial photos illuminate this area to reveal diseases affecting plants and to determine the type of plants arising in an area.
- Glaciology Targets: Satellites take photos to provide glaciologists with their melting and glacier movement.
Satellites (satellites) are based on extracting information and data from their sources on the earth’s surface and water bodies, using electromagnetic radiation, which is energy with different wavelengths at high speed and its speed per second reaches three hundred thousand kilometers.
Each electromagnetic ray propagates as electric and magnetic waves of equal length and correlates significantly with each other, and these rays are characterized by the contrast of their colors based on the frequency of their wave. The rays can be green, red, orange, or yellow.
The shortest wavelengths of less than four hundred nanometers are called X-rays, and the longest rays among these rays, the length of which reaches seven hundred and fifty nanometers, are called infrared rays, while rays of more than seven hundred and fifty nanometers are called radio rays. and the longer the wave, the lower its frequency.
Remote sensing system components
The remote sensing system includes a group of components like other systems, consisting of:
- Source of electromagnetic radiation: remote sensing systems depend on the source that emits electromagnetic radiation.
- The extent of interaction with the surface of the earth, and the interaction between the remote sensing system and what happens on the surface of the earth in terms of natural phenomena, depending on the amount of reflected electromagnetic radiation.
- Interaction with the atmosphere: the atmosphere around the globe causes certain effects on energy or so-called electromagnetic radiation as it passes through it.
- Sensors: These are devices that humans use to extract information from their sources by recording the reflected rays (infrared, radio, and X) after the interactions between observation devices, the earth’s surface, and the atmosphere.
The importance of remote sensing
Remote sensing is of great importance in the areas it covers, such as geographic studies, and its importance lies in the following:
- Follow up the extent of the distribution of terrestrial phenomena, and their spread within a wide range, and be targeted from very high altitude places; To give a larger description than the previous box.
- Track changes occurring in the earth’s geology and study it closely, such as floods, earthquakes, and traffic, and focus on studying phenomena that are difficult to guess with the naked eye and observe.
- Continuous monitoring and documentation of natural phenomena, as it is possible to revisit one’s archives at any other time after their registration. This is to study and observe a set of images captured by satellites, comparing them with each other.
- Polarize and extract data that the human eye cannot capture; Given the sensitivity of the naked eye to visible rays.
- The ability to take standardized actions quickly and with high accuracy, with a large degree in relation to heights, slopes, areas, and more.
- Help people conduct applied geography studies.
- Allow to draw maps and keep them updated as quickly as possible and in great detail.
Remote sensing applications
The agricultural field: can be used in this field for the following purposes:
- Detection of diseases and pests that affect the crops.
- Drawing up special policies to protect agricultural areas from pollution.
- Mapping the agricultural sector; To uncover agricultural areas, and determine the area they cover.
- Follow the forests and discover the fires as soon as they start.
Geology: The importance of remote sensing in the field of geology is as follows:
- Assistance in the production and preparation of geological maps.
- Detection of areas that contain volcanoes, and work to monitor movements that occur on the ground layers.
- Follow up on ground fissures.
Soil: As for the role that remote sensing plays in the field of soil, it is:
- Classifying soils into types, and studying them closely.
- Preparing soil climatology maps.
- Soil improvement through study and conservation.
The water field: The remote sensing system can be relied on in the water field in the following ways:
- Accurate mapping, especially for water areas.
- Follow-up, study, and protect the waters of the seas, rivers, and oceans, and protect them from pollution.
- Detect areas where floods are expected to occur.
- Exploration of groundwater wells.
Maps: Geographers benefit in drawing and preparing maps, depending on the aerial and space images that are captured. They also help to keep old maps updated with precision and enrich them with useful information.
Environmental protection field: Contributes to preserving the environment from pollution; By observing it, studying the changes that occur on the surface of the globe, and thus helping to find ways to do so, and focusing on studying the following:
- Air Pollution.
- Water pollution.
- The impact of factories and their risks on the surrounding environment.
Air and Maritime Navigation: remote sensing plays an important role in the field of air and maritime navigation. It is used to determine the paths of aircraft and their locations in the airspace, and it also helps to detect oil seepage in seas and rivers.
The military field: it can be used in the field of air and missile defense, and it can also be used for reconnaissance, monitoring the air borders of the region, directing and controlling correction, and it also helps espionage.